Monday, May 25, 2020

Enron Stakeholders - 1700 Words

BA 215 Spring 2007 Enron Stakeholder Assignment Enron was a dream come true for a lot of people, but it was also a nightmare waiting to happen for many more. I am going to examine the collapse of Enron from the management perspective. The three examples of Enron behaving badly that I am going to study are the incidents in Valhalla, the electricity trading in California and the conflict of interest between Andy Fastow and his special purpose entities (SPE). These are just a few cases that led to the failure of the Worlds Leading Company. In 1985 Houston Natural Gas merged with InterNorth, of Omaha, Neb., to form Enron and Ken Lay was named chief executive officer. The company was basically a producer of natural gas and had†¦show more content†¦The theory of deregulation of electricity in California was a model one, but the truth was California was being robbed. Enron electricity traders were manipulating the market strategies to extract more money from the state. These strategies, most were technically legal, were given catchy names and encouraged new ideas throughout the traders. Enron traders were creating, and then relieving, phantom congestion on Californias electricity grid. They were also involved in megawatt laundering, in which Enron bought power in California, resold the power out of the state and then bought the power back and resold it back into California, allowing Enron to avoid price caps meant to secure down costs (4). The electricity traders are also guilty of limiting the supply of energy by asking power plants that provide electricity to California to shut done for a specified period of time so they could take advantage of the shortages. All the while President Bush is refusing to step in to do anything stating the energy crisis will work itself out. Finally, in the summer of 2001 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) stepped in to try and alleviate the energy crisis. FERC imposed soft price caps, and the entire power market collapsed. Electricity prices dec reased and sanity returned to the market because the federal government showed they were willing to intervene, and that was what the market had been waiting for. AndyShow MoreRelatedEnron Stakeholders Essay1634 Words   |  7 PagesEnron Stakeholder Assignment Enron was a dream come true for a lot of people, but it was also a nightmare waiting to happen for many more. I am going to examine the collapse of Enron from the management perspective. The three examples of Enron behaving badly that I am going to study are the incidents in Valhalla, the electricity trading in California and the conflict of interest between Andy Fastow and his special purpose entities (SPE). These are just a few cases that led to the failure ofRead MoreKey Stakeholders Affected By The Collapse Of Enron1065 Words   |  5 PagesList 5 key stakeholders affected by the collapse of Enron? Explain briefly how each stakeholder was affected. a. Stockholders at first reaped tremendous gains from their investments in Enron stock, because the company’s value rose a lot of quicker than market averages throughout the late Nineteen Nineties. In 2001, because the stock value folded, investors lost $70 billion in value. Each individual and institutional shareholders were hurt. Significantly blasted were Enron workers whose 401(k) retirementRead MoreAgency And Stakeholder Theories To The Enron Debacle6344 Words   |  26 PagesBusiness and Society Review 110:1 59– 76 Applying the Agency and Stakeholder Theories to the Enron Debacle: An Ethical Perspective Blackwell Oxford, Business BASR  © 0045-3609 O 1 110 BUSINESS CULPAN riginal 2004 Center UK Article and and Publishing, and TRUSSEL Society for SOCIETY Business Ltd. Review REVIEW Ethics at Bentley College REFIK CULPAN AND JOHN TRUSSEL INTRODUCTION W e examine the infamous Enron debacle from an ethical perspective by deï ¬ ning its theoretical underpinnings and analyzingRead MoreEssay Business Ethics1686 Words   |  7 PagesThe stockholder and stakeholder theories are two popular frameworks used to examine the purpose of business and its ethical obligations. With reference to the quote above, both theories seem rational and enjoy strong support. However, a common failing of both is typically how humans interpret and implement the theories in contemporary business environments. For instance, Enron was so focused on the raising the price of their stock that they â€Å"cooked the books to produce fake profits†1. This paperRead MoreEnron’s Stakeholder Impact Case Analysis Essay1725 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: Widely known as the champion of the energy industry, Enron is suddenly faced with a corporate crisis in the form of a scandal. This scandal involves not only Enron’s accounting practices but also its corporate governance and culture (Lawrence Weber, 2008). This report will recommend some potential strategies for Enron to move forward from the scandal. To do this, we must incorporate stakeholder theory, which â€Å"argues that corporations serve a broad public purpose; to create valueRead MoreThe Ethical Dilemma Of Enron Essay1404 Words   |  6 PagesEnron was formed in 1985 following the merger of Houston Natural Gas Co. and InterNorth Co. The Chairman Kenneth Lay, CEO Jeffrey Skilling, and CFO Andrew Fastow were the backbone of Enron during its growth period. These executives exercised their power and expertise to unethically â€Å"increase† Enron’s profits by hiding the company’s debt. The ethical dilemma that Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling faced w as whether to let their stakeholders know how poorly the company was doing, or to hide the debtRead MoreThe Collapse Of Enron Corporation1787 Words   |  8 Pagesthere somewhere.† -Daniel Henninger, The Wall Street Journal The collapse of Enron Corporation has created many discussions about the structure of corporate governance. The question of this essay first calls to examine some of the strengths and weaknesses of the shareholder model of corporate governance and how the fundamental principles of this model were instrumental in the disintegration of Enron. In particular, I will discuss Deakin’s article about the third position addressing howRead MoreThe Enron Scandal Of Enron Essay1458 Words   |  6 Pagesevent that took place in our economy was the Enron Scandal, which happened in late 2000 and lasted into the following year. Those who were involved in this incident directly such as CEO’s Ken Lay and Jeff Skilling thought what they were doing was not wrong and that they were able to get away with making millions falsely (Seabury, 2008). However, this was a serious crisis situation and many people were affected through the process as well as their money. Enron was valuing themselves at a higher priceRead MoreInternal Control and Home Improvement1928 Words   |  8 Pagesstores throughout United States, Canada, Mexico operating with more than 234,000 employees (Lowe s home improvement, 2012†). Stakeholders are individuals, groups, or organizations that have a stake in the business. Stakeholders are categorize into two types: internal or external. Internal stakeholders can be owners, managers, and employees. External stakeholders can be suppliers, lenders, and customers (Worthington, 2009). Human Resource (Safety) There are many safety rules in Lowe’s HomeRead MoreEthical Codes Of Conduct Are Secondary Thoughts1531 Words   |  7 PagesEnron, WorldCom and Bank of Credit and Commerce, just to name a few, runs chills up and down the spines of, well, just about everybody. These scandals swirled around several large businesses, and hinged on unethical practices – unethical accounting practices, specifically. The idea of ethics is a hot button these days in all genres. In fact, universities and colleges are including ethics in the curriculum of every discipline instead of offering an ethics major, per se (Kanaiah Kumar, 2009).

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Education And Study At Universities - 1414 Words

There are many reasons why people decide to continue their education and study at Universities. It may be for enjoyment, for learning a new skill, for networking, or for career advancement, etc. However, for most people, education is an investment for the future, and is considered as a gateway to obtaining higher earnings in the future either via the job market or self-employment. It’s commonly believed that the higher the qualification you get, the higher the chance you would get a well-paid job. However, what about for entrepreneurs? People who don’t want to work in a steady paid job, but who wants to be their own boss. Do entrepreneurs need to study for a University degree? Would, in the course of studying a degree, increase the chance of becoming a successful entrepreneur? Does higher education teach the necessary skills to help people be successful in running a business? Thus, lead to my research topic. I would like to investigate whether successful entre preneurs obtained their necessary skills whilst studying at University. To begin with, how do we define â€Å"a successful entrepreneur†? The Cambridge Dictionary defines successful as â€Å"achieving the results wanted or hope for/ having achieved a lot, become popular, and/ or made a lot of money† [Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2014], and the definition of an entrepreneur is â€Å"someone who starts their own business, especially when this involves seeing a new opportunity† [Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2014].Show MoreRelatedHigher Education Case Study: Weston University1497 Words   |  6 PagesWeston University Case Summary The new president of Weston University, Dr. Diana Ball, took over in late 1995, succeeding Dr. Harold Powers. Dr. Powers led the prestigious private university for fifteen years from a human resource frame to tailor the organization to individuals (Bolman Deal, 2013, p. 16). Moreover, during Dr. Powers tenure, the reputation of once-leading private university in the Midwest diminished. Dr. Powers reputation as a scholar gained him the presidency; however, hisRead MoreA Research Study On Designing A Holistic Education Program At The University Of Washington1121 Words   |  5 Pages firmly rooted by HCI principles, who is able to act as a bridge between the technologists building a product and the people using this technology. I am positive that the MHCI+D program at the University of Washington will guide me towards the next level and help me reach my goal. My undergraduate studies at the Birla Institute of Technology Science (BITS) – Pilani, India, has prepared me phenomenally well for the MHCI program. Aside from graduating with first division from the most sought-afterRead Moreâ€Å"the Effect of Study Habits on the Academic Performance of Freshmen Education Students in Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City, School Year 2008-2009† Bilang Pagtupad Sa Isa Sa Mga Pangangailangan Ng Asignaturang1792 Words   |  8 PagesBilang pagtupad sa isa sa mga pangangailangan ng asignaturang Filipino 2, Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik, ang panahong – papel na ito na pinamagatang Mga Kadahilanan na Nakakaapekto sa Pag-aaral ng Estudyante sa Ikatlo at Ika-apat na Taon sa Unibersidad ng Perpetual Help System - Laguna ng Kolehiyo ng Occupational Therapy sa Ikalawang Semestre ng Taong - Akademiko 2010-2011 ay inihanda at iniharap ng mga mananaliksik mula sa kolehiyo ng Occupational Therapy na sina: Caabay, Ermar A. NaboRead MoreHealth Education Systems in Finland, Norway, and Ethiopia1511 Words   |  7 PagesHealth education is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes (WHO 2013). According to WHO it is important to have skilled health workers which have technical competencies so that they can available to different kind of people. (WHO 2013.) The study of nursing is an education in a profession of health care. Nurses are responsible for giving quality health care for everyoneRead MoreEducation And Its Influence On American Education1254 Words   |  6 PagesGraduate Education today shows traces of its European ancestors. The influences range from Greece, Egypt, Italy, Spain, and many others. American education has evolved and manifested throughout the thousands of years of its existence. We can directly trace the roots back to our European ancestors, with the educati on that exists today in America. Higher education’s journey began in Greece in 387 BC by Plato. The only thing offered at this first educational establishment was an advanced study in philosophyRead MoreChina s Higher Education System1712 Words   |  7 PagesResearch Methodology The study takes a comparative study approach. This approach is defined as putting two or more education systems side by side in order to determine their socio-economic, cultural, political, ideology in a context (Brickman and Fraser, 1968). This paper takes a view of China’s higher education systems in order to find out the strengths higher education for policy formation in South Sudan because currently there is no evidence of one. The emphasis here is that in examining the policyRead MoreHigher Education Within The Uk1054 Words   |  5 PagesHigher education within the UK has an ongoing predicament of class related inequalities with teenager’s expectations of going university. In the 20th Century there has been a drastic transformation within the UK with regards to higher education. Yet Ball et al (2002), suggests that â€Å"expectations of attending higher education is still determined by social class†. This study researches how young people’s class an d family’s educational background impacts their opportunity of further education. TeenagersRead MoreThe Education System in Saudi Arabi1093 Words   |  5 PagesThe education system in Saudi Arabia Education in Saudi Arabia is segregated by sex and divided into three separately administered systems: general education for boys, education for girls and traditional Islamic education (for boys). The Ministry of Education, established in 1952, presides over general education for boys, and education for girls comes under the jurisdiction of the General Presidency for Girls Education. Both sexes follow the same curriculum and take the same annual examinationsRead MoreWhat Are the Main Factors to Influence Overseas Students to Choose Higher Education in the Uk?1206 Words   |  5 PagesWhat are the main factors to influence overseas students to choose higher education in the UK? Significance of the study As the number of overseas student in the UK’s higher education sector has expended substantially during the last 15 years. The research intends to investigate factors determining overseas student’s decision to apply for a UK university. Understanding these demands and determinants will enable both university policymakers and government to evaluate the potential for expansion overseasRead MoreThe Career Future Of The Hong Kong1495 Words   |  6 PagesMainland Talents in Hong Kong Introduction After 1997, the relationship of Hong Kong and Mainland China is closer than before. Education freedom make Hong Kong be one of the links, which let the Mainland China communicate with the world (Tong, 2014). From 1998 to 2013, the number of mainland students who study in Hong Kong increases of ten times (Hong Kong Chinese University, 2014). After graduated, some mainland students want to find a good job in Hong Kong. However, they face the rat race with job

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Suicide Among Student Debtors - 1333 Words

Jason Yoder, a 35 year old graduate from Illinois State University in organic chemistry, graduated from the university with a $100,000 student loan debt and he struggled to find a job in his field. In 2007, his mother and his professor found his body in one of the labs on the campus, and the police declared that he had committed suicide. The media reported the incident and it was posted on many sites. While many expressed sympathy with Jason and blamed the student lending system, others blamed Jason and said that it was his responsibility to pay his debt. C. Cryn Johannsen, Founder and Director of All Education Matters, wrote in her blog Suicide Among Student Debtors: Who s Thought About It?† Most of the responses were from people confessing of feeling suicidal (Johannsen, 2012). Jason’s incident was not the first suicide because of debt, and it will not be the last one. These cases are enough for us to think about the student lending system in the U.S. It forces us to ask an important question, whether a college education is worth the debt or not. For me, the answer is clearly yes it is worth it. Today, a college degree is an essential requirement for the majority of careers, and education is important even if you have to go in debt to get a degree. A college degree will raise your chances to succeed. The overall amount of the student debt in the U.S. has tripled in 10 years, from $363 billion in 2005 to more than $1.2 trillion today (Nelson, 2014). It has increased forShow MoreRelatedStudent Loans : The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly899 Words   |  4 Pages Running Head: STUDENT LOANS: THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY. Brown-Gorham 1 Student Loans: The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly Da-Mosi Brown-Gorham English 101-23 Western Carolina University Running Head: STUDENT LOANS: THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY. Brown-Gorham 2 Most people are aware that federal student loans are a type of financial aid that must be repaid to the federal government, unlike grants or scholarships. Federal student loans are administered by the United States Government by way ofRead MoreAssessment And Problem Formulation Of Fice Of Student Life At The Ohio State University1627 Words   |  7 Pagesservice of the Office of Student Life at the Ohio State University. We provide a variety of counseling to students such as individual, group, psychiatry, nutritional counseling, couple’s counseling, etc. We provide workshops, crisis debriefing, and community referral. The counseling and consultation service wants to help students with stress management, anxiety, depression, relationship problems, transitions in life, identity exploration, substance use, eating concerns, etc. Students can make an appointmentRead MoreThe Problem Of Debt And Financial Difficulties1641 Words   |  7 Pagesstated in the same article, â€Å"Many students say they prefer ‘just not to think about it’ because adding money stress to their academic stress is overwhelming† (Novotney 1 ). The suppressed feelings of envy and self-criticism lead to anxiety and agony. Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness accompanied by feelings of worry and fear. While it may seem absurd to associate a feeling of dread with debt, it is a very common occurrence, particularly with debts due to student loans. As discussed in the articleRead MoreBusiness Law5479 Words   |  22 Pagesconsent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense† . Thus, consent involves identity of minds or consensus ad-idem i.e., agreeing upon the same thing in the same sense. If for whatever reason, there is no consensus ad-idem among the contracting parties, there is no real consent and hence no valid contract. * Example:- A, agrees to sell his Nano Car 2010 model for Rs. 80,000. B agrees to buy the same. There is a valid contract since A and B have consented to the sameRead MoreEssay on History of the Prison System3187 Words   |  13 Pagesthat the idea that persons convicted of crimes could be punished by confinement and released after a period of time. During the 17th century, England and other European countries like Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands began imprisoning debtors, delinquent juveniles, minor misdemeanant, and felons. Early jails were mostly dark, overcrowded, and filthy. Prisoners were herded together indiscriminately, with no separation of men and women, the young and old, the convicted and unconvictedRead MoreExam Notes6710 Words   |  27 Pagesaccount of such errors and omissions. Leaser Type Setted by : Biyani College Printing Department For more details: - http://www.gurukpo.com 3 Preface I am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is selfexplanatory and adopts the â€Å"Teach Yourself† style. It is based on questionanswer pattern. The language of bookRead MoreExam Notes6704 Words   |  27 Pagesmanner on account of such errors and omissions. Leaser Type Setted by : Biyani College Printing Department For more details: - http://www.gurukpo.com 3 Preface I am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is selfexplanatory and adopts the â€Å"Teach Yourself† style. It is based on questionanswer pattern. The language of bookRead MoreRise and Fall of Lehman Brothers11214 Words   |  45 Pagesvolatilities and risk premia looked exceptionally low compared with fixed income credit, equity and foreign exchange markets. (ii) Growth in US Economy - Interest Rate Cut and Deregulation According to one influential school of thought represented by among others, Paul Krugman, there was ‘global imbalances’, the phenomenon of huge current account surpluses in China and few other countries coexisting with the unsustainably large deficits in the US. This imbalance was caused by the propensity of the countriesRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesfrom 23 to 9. Preface Welcome to the fifteenth edition of Organizational Behavior! Long considered the standard for all organizational behavior textbooks, this edition continues its tradition of making current, relevant research come alive for students. While maintaining its hallmark features—clear writing style, cutting-edge content, and engaging pedagogy—the fourteenth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent research within the field of organizational behavior. This is one of theRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesmajority were almost invariably lives of drudge labor in urban sweatshops, on tropical plantations, or on the wharves of an expansive, global export economy. Throughout the century, advances in human rights, which were spread ever more broadly among different social groups—including women, laborers, INTRODUCTION †¢ 3 ethnic minorities, and gays—made strides that were perhaps greater than all of those achieved in previous history combined. During the same time span, however, state

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Convert Your Gasoline-Burning Car to Run on Propane

With the price of fuel, propane car conversions (also called LPG conversions) are attracting more attention. Propane is certainly one viable alternative fuel option: it has been used as a commercial motor fuel for more than 80 years and millions of miles. Its also less expensive to use than gasoline, even though the cost per liter is higher. Why It Can Be Tough to Convert to Propane The Environmental Protection Agency requires all vehicles to meet the same emission standards. While propane burns cleaner than gasoline, increased regulations from the EPA, means that there are very few propane conversion kits for U.S. street passenger vehicles available today. It has actually been a much more popular choice in Europe and other countries due to less stringent regulations and higher petrol prices. Even though propane powered engines offer cleaner emissions along with 10 to 15 percent less carbon dioxide, 20 percent less carbon monoxide and 50 to 60 percent fewer hydrocarbons and nitric oxide, tighter emissions regulations have changed the way conversion companies can do business. While generic propane conversions used to be common fare for a trained mechanic (generally not for the DIY-er, though), most four-stroke engines (carbureted and fuel-injected) can still be converted to operate on propane when a certified technician installs the correct kit. And propane’s minimal sooting, owing to its low carbon content, means increased engine life, fewer oil changes, and longer spark plug life. Why Conversion May Still Be a Good Idea Although it may take some legwork on your part, it can be worth converting to propane if you have a propane filling station in your area that makes fueling up easily accessible and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are relatively few U.S. propane conversion companies with an online presence that sell street-ready passenger car kits or do conversions (some have websites, many don’t). Prices for a full conversion by a qualified technician can range from $3,000 to $4,000. Hopefully, you’ll be close to one of the shops that are on RASO Enterprises’ extensive shop list (below), and they can help you go from there. Where to Find Conversion Kits Because of the scarcity of conversion companies, its unlikely that youll find one in your backyard. That said, however, these two companies may be able to provide you with what you need at a reasonable cost. Got Propane?  Based in Tempe, AZ, the eye-catching off-roading photos on this company’s website showcase propane’s ability to operate at any angle with no loss of power or fuel spillage. *Note: These kits are only for off-road vehicles, and this company does not sell kits for late model cars and trucks (1987 and newer).RASO Enterprises  In addition to selling kits, this company provides a wealth of information to help you find a certified conversion shop in the United States or Canadian conversion center. Most of these shops specialize in heavy duty/commercial vehicles with minimal offerings for passenger cars. There are links to find kits for your personal car fleet vehicles, (options are limited) or off-road  and agricultural equipment. This site also refers to TECHNOCARB, the manufacturer of many different conversion kits.

Diplomacy and How America Does It

In its basic social sense, â€Å"diplomacy† is defined as the art of getting along with other people in a sensitive, tactful, and effective manner. In its political sense, diplomacy is the art of conducting polite, non-confrontational negotiations between representatives, knows as â€Å"diplomats,† of various nations. Typical issues dealt with through international diplomacy include war and peace, trade relations, economics, culture, human rights, and the environment. As part of their jobs, diplomats often negotiate treaties  -- formal, binding agreements between nations -- which must then be approved or â€Å"ratified† by the governments of the individual nations involved. In short, the goal of international diplomacy is to reach mutually acceptable solutions to common challenges facing nations in a peaceful, civil manner. How the US Uses Diplomacy Supplemented by military strength along with economic and political influence, the United States depends on diplomacy as the primary means of achieving its foreign policy goals. Within the U.S. federal government, the presidential Cabinet-level Department of State has primary responsibility for conducting international diplomatic negotiations. Using the best practices of diplomacy, the ambassadors and other representatives of the Department of State work to achieve the agency’s mission to â€Å"shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous, just, and democratic world and foster conditions for stability and progress for the benefit of the American people and people everywhere.† State Department diplomats represent the interests of the United States in a diverse and rapidly-evolving field of multi-national discussions and negotiations involving issues such as cyber warfare, climate change, sharing outer space, human trafficking, refugees, trade, and unfortunately, war and peace. While some areas of negotiation, such as trade agreements, offer changes for both sides to benefit, more complex issues involving the interests of multiple nations or those that are particularly sensitive to one side or the other can make reaching an agreement more difficult. For U.S. diplomats, the requirement for Senate approval of agreements further complicates negotiations by limiting their room to maneuver. According to the Department of State, the two most important skills diplomats need are a complete understanding of the U.S. view on the issue and an appreciation of the culture and interests of the foreign diplomats involved. â€Å"On multilateral issues, diplomats need to understand how their counterparts think and express their unique and differing beliefs, needs, fears, and intentions,† notes the Department of State. Rewards and Threats are Tools of Diplomacy During their negotiations, diplomats may use two very different tools to reach agreements: rewards and threats. Rewards, such as the sale of arms, economic aid, shipments of food or medical assistance, and promises of new trade are often used to encourage agreement. Threats, usually in the form of sanctions restricting trade, travel or immigration, or cutting off financial aid are sometimes used when negotiations become deadlocked. Forms of Diplomatic Agreements: Treaties and More Assuming they end successfully, diplomatic negotiations will result in an official, written agreement detailing the responsibilities and expected actions of all nations involved. While the best-known form of diplomatic agreements is the treaty, there are others. Treaties A treaty is a formal, written agreement between or among countries and international organizations or sovereign states. In the United States, treaties are negotiated through the executive branch by the Department of State. After diplomats from all countries involved have agreed to and signed the treaty, the President of the United States sends it to the U.S. Senate for its â€Å"advice and consent† on ratification. If the Senate approves the treaty by a two-thirds majority vote, it is returned to the White House for the president’s signature. Since most other countries have similar procedures for ratifying treaties, it can take sometimes take years for them to be fully approved and implemented. For example, while Japan surrendered to allied forces in World War II on September 2, 1945, the U.S. did not ratify a Treaty of Peace with Japan until September 8, 1951. Interestingly, the U.S. has never agreed to a peace treaty with Germany, largely because of the political division of Germany in the years after the war. In the United States, a treaty may be nullified or canceled only by the enactment of a bill approved by Congress and signed by the president.   Treaties are created to deal with a wide array of multinational issues including peace, trade, human rights, geographic borders, immigration, national independence, and more. As times change, the scope of subjects covered by treaties widens to keep pace with current events. In 1796, for example, the U.S. and Tripoli agreed to a treaty to protect American citizens from kidnapping and ransom by pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. In 2001, the United States and 29 other countries agreed to an international agreement to combat cybercrime. Conventions A diplomatic convention is a type of treaty that defines an agreed-upon framework for further diplomatic relations between independent countries on a wide variety of issues. In most cases, countries create diplomatic conventions to help deal with shared concerns. In 1973, for example, representatives of 80 countries, including the United States, formed the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) to protect rare plants and animals around the world. Alliances Nations typically create diplomatic alliances to deal with mutual security, economic or political issues or threats. For example, in 1955, the Soviet Union and several Eastern European communist countries formed a political and military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union proposed the Warsaw Pact as a response to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), formed by the United States, Canada and Western European nations in 1949. The Warsaw Pact was dissolved shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Since then, several Eastern European nations have joined NATO. Accords While diplomats work to agree on the terms of a binding treaty, they will sometimes agree to voluntary agreements called â€Å"accords.† Accords are often created while negotiating particularly complicated or controversial treaties involving many countries. For example, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol is an accord among nations to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases.   Who Are the Diplomats? Along with an administrative support staff, each of the nearly 300 U.S. embassies, consulates, and diplomatic missions worldwide is overseen by one presidentially appointed â€Å"ambassador† and group of â€Å"Foreign Service Officers† who assist the ambassador. The ambassador also coordinates the work of representatives of other U.S. federal government agencies in the country. At some large overseas embassies, personnel from as many as 27 federal agencies work in concert with the embassy staff. The ambassador is the president’s top-ranking diplomatic representative to foreign nations or international organizations, like the United Nations. Ambassadors are appointed by the president and must be confirmed by a simple majority vote of the Senate. At larger embassies, the ambassador is often assisted by a â€Å"deputy chief of mission (DCM). In their role as â€Å"chargà © daffaires,† the DCMs serve as the acting ambassador when the main ambassador is outside the host country or when the post is vacant. The DCM also oversees the day-to-day administrative management of the embassy, as well as the work if the Foreign Service Officers. Foreign Service Officers are professional, trained diplomats who represent U.S. interests abroad under the direction of the ambassador. The Foreign Service Officers observe and analyze current events and public opinion in the host nation and report their findings to the ambassador and Washington. The idea is to ensure that U.S. foreign policy is responsive to the needs of the host nation and its people. An embassy generally houses five types of Foreign Service Officers: Economic Officers: work with the host nation’s government to negotiate new trade laws, ensure internet freedom, protect the environment, or fund scientific and medical advances.Management Officers: are the â€Å"go-to† diplomats with responsibility for all embassy operations from real estate to staffing to budgeting.Political Officers: advise the ambassador on political events, public opinion, and cultural changes in the host nation.Public Diplomacy Officers: have the sensitive job of building support for U.S. policies within the host nation through public participation; social media; educational, cultural and sports programs; and all manner of daily â€Å"people-to-people† relations.Consular Officers: assist and protect American citizens in the host nation. If you lose your passport, get in trouble with the law, or want to get married to a foreigner overseas, the Consular Officers can help. So, what qualities or traits do diplomats need to be effective? As Benjamin Franklin said, â€Å"The qualities of a diplomat are sleepless tact, unmovable calmness, and a patience that no folly, no provocation, no blunders may shake.†

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. - 553 Words

Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. was born December 18, 1912 in Washington D.C. His father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. was one of the few African-American officers in the U.S. Army. Davis, Jr. was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy in 1932 by Rep. Oscar S. De Priest, the only black congressman at that time. At West Point he endured ostracism from both classmates and superiors who wanted to see him fail. He persevered and graduated 35th in a class of 276 in 1936. He was the fourth African-American graduate in the Academy’s history. Upon commissioning he and his father became the only two black officers in the army. His application to the Army Air Corps was refused because the Air Corps did not accept African-Americans. Davis was serving as an ROTC†¦show more content†¦The real turning point for Davis and his black combat airmen came when the 332nd was assigned escort duty for strategic bombers. The Red Tails never lost a bomber to enemy fighters and shot down three of the first jet fighters employed by the Germans. Their truly unique achievement was sinking an enemy destroyer. During the war Davis flew 60 missions and was awarded the Sliver Star, the Legion of Merit and the Distinguished Flying Cross for mission leadership. Segregation in the armed forces was steadily undermined by Davis’s performance combined with the achievements of his fighter groups. When the Air Force separated from the Army in 1947, an internal study recommended racial integration. The principal argument was that Davis and his airmen had proved in war and peace that blacks could perform all jobs as well as whites could. In 1949, the Air Force became the first of the U.S. armed services to integrate racially. After commanding a fighter group during the Korean War, Davis was promoted to lieutenant general in 1965 and became chief-of-staff of U.S. forces in Korea in 1967. He retired from the Air Force in 1970. In 1998 President William J. Clinton retroactively promoted Davis to full general. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. died on July 4, 2002. References Dalfiume, Richard M. 1969. Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939-1953. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Davis,Show MoreRelatedBenjamin Oliver Davis Jr.1724 Words   |  7 PagesBenjamin Oliver Davis Jr. recognized for being the first Black Air Force General, paved the way for the Black soldier. Benjamin Oliver Davis Jr. was born December 18, 1912, to Benjamin, Sr. and Elnora Dickerson Davis. Due to complications from childbirth, Elnora dies when Benjamin is four years old. His father Benjamin, Sr. the first Black General in the United States Army, serving in various capacities such as the Spanish-American War and the original Buffalo Soldier regiments was a pioneer forRead MoreThree People That Stand Out As Leaders? Laurence Olivier, Jr., And Edith Nourse Rogers1172 Words   |  5 PagesThree people that stand out as leaders include Laurence Olivier, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., and Edith Nourse Rogers. Laurence Olivier was born into a strict religious family in southern England around the beginning of the 20th century. Olivier’s schooling included acting and drama at the Central School of Speech and Drama, which led to him joining the Birmingham Repertory company. After taking multiple lead roles in many of Shakespeare’s plays, he became a success, helping him become the founding directorRead MoreMorgans Stand Below the Goldsboro Road2130 Words   |  8 Pages5:30 A.M. on Saturday the eighteenth†(Hughes Jr., 17). After Morgan helped federal foragers in his division fight off small rebel forces near Bushy Swamp, Sherman ordered him to hold his division where it was. In the early morning of March 19th, Morgan’s men would advance along with Sherman and WilliamCarlin’s men. They would soon be told to hold position again as Carlin went to engage against Confederates. It wouldn’t be until the afternoon at three o clock that Morgan would soon have to help CarlinRead More Tuskegee Airmen Essay1869 Words   |  8 Pagesto have never lost a bomber they were escorting. The Group was the 332nd Fighter Group, The Redtails, the famed a ll African American outfit that fought both American racism and Nazi militarism. Under the leadership and discipline of Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, the Redtails had learned that their mission in life was to protect the bombers(Respect and Honor 1). Prior to WWII, the U.S. Air Force did not employ African Americans in any role. However in 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt orderedRead MoreEvents that Triggered World War II1193 Words   |  5 PagesAfrican Americans joined the armed forces but was only allowed to support positions and was restricted to participate in war. 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Davis Jr. became the first black man to officially solo an aircraft as an officer of the Army Air Corps.*5* A few days after Davis’s solo flight on December 7,1941, in the midst of class 42C’s training, the Japanese bombed the US NavyRead MoreBibliographic Essay on African American History6221 Words   |  25 PagesStrickland and Robert E. Weems, Jr., eds., The African American Experience: An Historiographical and Bibliographical Guide (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001); and Randall M. Miller and John David Smith, eds., Dictionary of Afro- American Slavery (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1988), provide informative narratives along with expansive bibliographies. General texts covering major historical events with attention to chronology include John Hope Franklin and Alfred A. 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Native American Sac Fox Tribe - 1312 Words

For this assignment, I interviewed Tony Easter, a member of the Native American Sac Fox tribe in Missouri. There are three federally recognized Sac fox tribes in the US, one located in Oklahoma, a combined one in Kansas and Nebraska, and one in Iowa. Tony belongs to a branch of the Oklahoma tribe, which unofficially broke from the Oklahoma tribe in the 1970’s following a dispute on the admittance of members through marriage or blood relation to the tribe. According to Tony, blood relation for membership is a hotly contested debate in many Native American tribes. Tribal blood laws, called blood quantum, is a fraction of Native American blood found in people. The Sac Fox tribe decided to require that a true member of the tribe must be 1/8th†¦show more content†¦(This theory is very similar to the â€Å"one drop rule† to be considered African American in 19th and 20th century America.) The dissenting tribe members also saw this as the beginning of the end for Native Americans, as eventually there would not be enough tribe members to marry and produce offspring that could keep the 1/8 quantum blood. Because of this, a section of the Sac Fox tribe broke from the Oklahoma group. They are not a federally recognized tribe because there are multiple state and federal laws involving recognizing Native American tribes, including multiple tribal treaties that must be referenced. According to Tony, it is extremely complicated and difficult to do. So, while they are still officially part of the Sac Fox tribe, they are completely independent of each other, only sharing a similar name. Several members purchased acreage in southern Missouri, which was designated as their new tribal land. Tony said this land is lived on and managed by tribal leaders, which maintain it for tribal meetings. In addition to tribal meetings, the tribe holds a large tribal meeting in the summer, when all tribal members are expected to return for the large tribal meeting. This is both the annual business meeting of the tribe and all members, as well as a time for them to get together and celebrate their culture, as most of the tribe has integrated into society. Tony said that while this is a celebration of culture, it is notShow MoreRelatedRole of Black Hawk in Native American and US History973 Words   |  4 PagesBlack Hawk was Sauk American Indian leader that became prominent at a young age and managed to play an important role in shaping Native American history and U.S. history in general. He was born in 1767 in Saukenuk, a Native American village is contemporary Rock Island, Illinois. Even with the fact that he was not born a chief, his actions made it possible for individuals in his tribe to appreciate him and to support him as their leader. Black Hawk trained as a boy and learnt a gr eat deal about wagingRead MoreNative American Graves Protection And Repatriation Act Essay1631 Words   |  7 Pagesa history that began with the settlement of European-Americans during the 19th Century as there is little roadside advertising stating the contrary. Kansas, for centuries, was a land where many Native American tribes that lived, fought, and died. Subsequently, the city of Wichita is a good example of this. It is known as a large city of Kansas and not known as the name of a Native American tribe. The fact of the matter is that the Wichita tribe aided in the establishment of a trading post that ledRead MoreAnalysis Of Howard Zinn s A People s History Of The United States 2266 Words   |  10 PagesJalen Booth Murphy APUSH 3/3/15 Native American Essay Since the very first contact, the Native Americans have been treated as subordinates, being mistreated, shamed, embarrassed, and oppressed by white settlers. After the Revolutionary War in the late 1700’s, matters only got worse for the Native Americans. Population was skyrocketing due to a great deal of immigration of white settlers in the early to mid 1800’s, and there wasn’t enough space for everyone. With this came expansion, and to reachRead MoreNative American Voices By Susan Lobo1040 Words   |  5 Pagesand mold ourselves for as long as we live. Throughout the book, Native American Voices written by Susan Lobo, Steve Talbot and Traci L. Morris, many of the authors emphasize the growing concept of identity and state that identity only exists through differences in relationships with others. Without these differences, we would be identified as the â€Å"same.† The social grouping of people happens all over the world, not only for Natives, but it is most near and dear to my heart. 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Manifest destiny could have not occurred in the best time were average Americans wanted to own farms and land. Thus, manifest destiny, the Haitian revolution, the Louisiana Purchase, the removal of Native American shares common themes of expansion of slavery, territory and white superiority leadingRead MoreThe Community Organizing Self Reflection Essay1365 Words   |  6 Pagescommunity organizing and building began with the passion and knowledge for the well-being of others my father instilled in my life. My father was the late Chief Elmer Manatowa Jr of the S ac and Fox Nation, Native Tribe of Oklahoma. I have been an active Governing Council member (all adult members) of my Tribe for many years. I landed my first real job, Planning Department secretary, after taking a business course at the local technical .school. In that position, I had the opportunity to attendRead MoreThe Black And The White, The Rich And Poor, And Men And Women1203 Words   |  5 Pageswere terms that are commonly used to illustrate disparity of people. Race, class, and gender were used for special purposes in the United States from the American Revolution through the Civil War. They were not only used to limit the rights of some groups of people, but also to extend the benefits of others. African Americans, Native Americans, and the Chinese were some of the groups of people that best portray the inequality during this period of time. The usage of race, class, and gender had brutalRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of The Indian Removal1518 Words   |  7 Pagesover whelming events the American Revolution had on everyone involved, allows us to examine how the governments’ policies toward the Indians changed over time. It shows how the policy changes effected the Indians as well as the Americans’, their attitudes toward each other as the American’s pushed westward and the Indians resisted. Then the actions on both sides which lead up to the final removal of all Indians to west of the Mississippi in 1830’s. The government as well as the Americans’ attitude towardRead MoreSpeech On Columbus Day1430 Words   |  6 Pagesseems that every year on this day, Columbus Day, citizens across the nation are addressed with the issue of the â€Å"History of the West.† On one of our district’s campuses this morning, Native American and white students got into a large disagreement about the true happenings of the â€Å"History of the West.† For Native American students, Columbus Day is a day of mourning where these students and families think about the near genocide of their people and culture. For white students, Columbus day can make the